Principles of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
In the 1800s, world-renowned English physicist Michael Faraday discovered the principles of electromagnetic induction. Fast forward to the 21st century, Faraday’s discovery was harnessed into the clinical practice of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for the treatment of mood disorders. Based on Faraday’s Law, TMS can stimulate brain neuronal circuits with tiny electrical currents induced by a changing magnetic field.
In Singapore, the practical application of TMS is employed in the form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). In rTMS, magnetic pulses are delivered in trains at specific frequencies. “Fast” (high frequency e.g. 10Hz) stimulation increases cortical excitability for the treatment of depression. Whereas “slow” (low frequency e.g. 1Hz) stimulation reduces cortical excitability for treating anxiety disorders. Furthermore, TMS can be targeted at focused regions of the cortex for superior precision treatment of specific conditions e.g. rTMS at 1Hz to the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) reduces intrusive obsessions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
Mood disturbances such as depression are increasingly understood as disorders of connectivity in neural networks linking cortical and subcortical grey structures of the brain. Functional brain imaging has shown dysfunction in cortical regions such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), as well as deep grey matter structures including the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus and hypothalamus. These brain circuits are pivotal for executive functioning, regulation of emotions, reward processing and preservation of memory and cognition. They also link the nervous system to the endocrine system, which mediates the body’s response to stress.
Neuroplasticity and TMS
Evidence suggests that TMS induces neuroplastic changes in these circuits. Neuroplasticity is the ability of the brain to reorganize itself by forming new neural connections. TMS helps readjust neurotransmitter (e.g. serotonin and dopamine) levels in a variety of brain regions. TMS also appears to exert a neuroprotective effect on the brain. Research has shown that TMS decreases brain inflammatory factors reducing oxidative stress on the brain. TMS also boosts the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), encouraging neuronal growth in regions such as the hippocampus which is vital for learning and memory. It is postulated that the anti-depressant properties of TMS may also help in normalizing the body’s neuroendocrine stress response system.
rTMS has achieved its place on international treatment guidelines as an augmentation treatment modality to be strongly considered in treatment-resistant depression. It is reported that 30-40% of depressed patients may have inadequate responses to anti-depressant medication treatment. The direct neuronal effects of rTMS may explain why rTMS may work for this group of patients.
rTMS for OCD Treatment and other neurological disorders
In May 2022, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of the NeuroStar TMS system as an adjunct for treating adult patients suffering from OCD. Promising research is ongoing for the clinical application of TMS in treating Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), addictions, chronic pain, insomnia and many other neurological disorders.
TMS and recovery
With further advancements in TMS research and the incorporation of TMS in routine clinical practice, there is strong hope for recovery and the regaining of optimal functioning for patients afflicted by complex neuropsychiatric conditions.
1) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Clinical Applications for Psychiatric Practice
2018 American Psychiatric Association Publishing, First Edition
2) The Science of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
William M. Sauvé, MD; and Lawrence J. Crowther, Meng
Psychiatric Annals, Vol44, No.6, 2014
3) Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and decreases interleukin-1b and tumour necrosis factor-a in elderly patients with refractory depression
When one has to live with debilitating chronic conditions or even degenerative disorders, it is natural that we place emphasis on seeing that the afflicted recover and receive the appropriate management. As our society rapidly ages, the number of elderly living with medical conditions or dementia is also increasing exponentially. However, the care should extend beyond the patients themselves. More often than not, there are other individuals involved, including family members and friends dedicated to supporting their recovery. Is it time we acknowledge their efforts and ensure they are coping well?
Caregiving can be exceptionally draining – both physically and emotionally – when a family member becomes a patient at home. Needless to say, we are unable to predict such unfortunate circumstances, and caregivers are often thrown into their roles without prior knowledge and preparation. This leaves them with no choice but to adapt and pick up new skills in order to commit to their caregiving responsibilities. However, this can take a toll on the primary caregiver as well as family relationships.
With a large part of their time allocated to caring for another person, caregivers are much more susceptible to fatigue and prolonged stress, with little or no time for self-care. It can be a big problem if the caregiver feels that there’s no support – family and social relationships can be compromised, thereby further reducing any support network that a caregiver can receive. This can lead to burnout and immense feelings of helplessness.
A survey by the Singapore Management University (SMU) with the support of Caregivers Alliance Limited (CAL), Enable Asia and the Singapore Association for Mental Health (SAMH), reveals that 3 in 4 caregivers are tired and exhausted caring for a person with mental health issues. Furthermore, the Family Caregiver Alliance estimates that close to 20 percent of family caregivers suffer from some form of depression. In addition, mental health disorders are even more common among dementia caregivers. A study conducted on mental health issues in those caring for Alzheimer’s patients found that the prevalence of depression was an alarming 34 percent, anxiety was 43.6 percent, and the use of psychotropic drugs was 27.2 percent.
Some other common problems that caregivers face include (but are not limited to):
Mental health concerns
Physical health concerns
High rates of negative affect including guilt, sadness, dread, irritation and worry
Ambivalence about care
Witnessing the suffering of relatives
Feeling isolated or abandoned by others
Risk of illness, injury, mortality
Adverse changes in health status
Dysregulation of stress hormones
Work/employment (e.g., reduction in work hours, family to work spillover, and work to family spillover)
Loss of time for self-care
Reduced quality of life
This is where family therapy comes in. Families might find therapy useful when they are adapting to a major change in the family such as dealing with a chronic illness or death in the family, or conflicts between family members in the caregiving process. Family therapy is a method to engage family caregivers in active and focused problem-solving approaches related to family caregiving to improve the quality of care, reduce burden and improve family functioning. Family therapy for caregivers, in particular, encompasses six core processes – naming the problem, structuring care, role structuring, role reverberations, caregiver self-care and widening the lens. Therapy is conducted in a way that is tailored to each household. Depending on the needs that caregivers and their families must address, the aspects that are challenging them will become the focus of intervention. Not covering all six areas doesn’t mean that the therapist isn’t taking a comprehensive approach – the core processes simply act as a guideline, and do not imply a rigid prescription of intervention work.
Conflicts and resentment often arise for anyone in the role of family caregiver, and these are exacerbated when trying to share tasks with siblings or other members of the family. Many a time, caregivers tend to bottle up their feelings and put up a positive front so as to avoid passing on any negative feelings to their care recipients. However, this can be extremely detrimental to their own mental and physical health in the long run. The main part of family therapy for caregivers, therefore, involves helping the caregiver and family members sort through challenging emotions and reach resolutions. Speaking about your feelings can help you find comfort, and allows you to gain further insight and through the guidance of the therapists, various emotional-coping strategies. Implementing them will certainly take some weight off your shoulders, and perhaps give you some enlightenment with regards to discovering new problem-solving strategies.
Undeniably, caregivers will benefit tremendously from any assistance in their caregiving responsibilities from family members. Family therapy is extremely beneficial in helping to improve the interactions and support network among family members, especially in providing new perspectives on problems that are seemingly unmanageable (part of which involves building trust, mutual respect and openness). This hence reduces the level of stress within the family and the level of caregiver burden, on top of enhancing communication skills and boosting a positive sense of empowerment.
Family therapy is focused on achieving precisely what is best for the whole family and its cohesiveness, and sorting out obstacles or issues challenging the family dynamics. It is important that you take the important step toward seeking help from professionals in order to achieve a better quality of life for yourself and your family.
While face-to-face consultations are the norm, we understand that as caregivers, you may be faced with time constraints or other concerns. Thankfully, with technological advancement, virtual consultations are also becoming increasingly popular. They are equally effective and allow for more individuals to connect with their family therapists with greater ease. Of course, the decision is entirely yours to make. If you find yourself struggling, or simply feel that you need a trustworthy individual to speak to, feel free to get in contact with us.
The COVID-19 pandemic is unprecedented. The ubiquitous influence of the pandemic has been—and continues to be— felt by individuals globally. Many experiences the fear of being infected or infecting others, disruptions in their daily routines, social isolation, the likelihood of unemployment, financial hardship and the looming economic uncertainty (Ministry of Health Singapore, 2020). As such, there is a detrimental impact on the mental health and wellbeing of individuals, including an increased risk of suicidal behaviour.
Globally, the prevalence rates for depression and anxiety in the COVID-19 pandemic were 28.0% and 26.9% respectively (Nochaiwong et al., 2021). Factors contributing to depression and anxiety include suffering, fear or potential death, grief and financial stressors (World Health Organization, WHO 2022).
Young people have been identified as at increased risk for suicidal and self-harming behaviours (WHO, 2022). Women’s mental health, compared to men’s, has been more adversely impacted by the pandemic (WHO, 2022). In addition, people with existing medical conditions such as asthma, cancer and heart diseases, have been found to be at higher risk for developing mental health disorders (WHO, 2022).
In Singapore, a study conducted by the Institute of Mental Health (IMH) (Ministry of Health Singapore, 2020) found that 8.7% of Singapore residents reported having clinical depression, 9.4% reported having clinical anxiety and 9.3% reported mild to severe stress levels. Older adults were identified as a vulnerable group, particularly, those who lived alone. Similar to the findings from WHO (2022), youths in Singapore were also identified as vulnerable to experiencing poor mental health in response to the pandemic. There is an urgency for countries to boost their mental health and psychosocial support services as part of the pandemic response plan.
According to the COVID-19 mental wellness task force, initiatives in Singapore include providing psychological support via helplines such as the National CARE hotline and a mental health help bot (‘Belle’), incorporating mental health materials in the school curriculum, fostering family resilience and supporting parents with parenting skills.
Here are some recommendations for mental health support during this pandemic:
Parents are encouraged to have conversations with their children about their children’s worries and responses to the pandemic. Parents have been found to underestimate such responses (Pfefferbaum & North, 2020). Such “talk time” can also help in trust and bond-building
Seniors can be equipped with digital skills and also expand their options for help and support i.e. the provision of telehealth counselling and support services (Brydon et al., 2022).
Health care workers can monitor their stress responses and seek assistance in relation to both their work and personal lives from a mental health professional (Pfefferbaum & North, 2020).
People can be encouraged to limit their consumption of news related to COVID-19 to once a day and to focus solely on credible news sources.
Having social interactions with family and friends and offering to help support one another during this difficult period can also be particularly beneficial.
Being outdoors and exercising are good habits for maintaining healthy wellbeing.
As restrictions are slowly easing around the world, it can also be challenging for most people to adjust back to when restrictions were first introduced (during lockdowns). With new changes and uncertainty, being mindful of one’s mental health and well-being is crucial. For example, larger social gatherings (e.g. group of 10) may seem overwhelming at first, therefore it is important for people to recognise their anxiety levels related to social gatherings.
Here are some suggestions that might help regulate your emotions as you enter this new season of Singapore opening up amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic (Black Dog Institute, 2022):
Gradually, increase your time spent in a larger social gathering at your own pace.
You can also start to focus on things that are within your ability and control. For instance, you can engage in different relaxation techniques such as deep breathing and focusing on being in the present in order to better cope with your stress levels (American Psychological Association, 2021).
it can be useful to discuss reasonable adjustments back to work with your managers such as flexible working arrangements and other training opportunities in order to increase work efficacy
Seek professional help if there are concerns regarding stress levels related to the easing of restrictions.
It is particularly evident that the COVID-19 pandemic has taken a toll on the well-being of Singaporeans and the rest of the world. The pandemic has highlighted the importance of mental health and wellbeing and there is an urgent call for countries worldwide to provide people with mental health and psychosocial support to help them maintain psychological wellness.
Some Local Helplines and support:
National CARE hotline (8am-8pm daily): 1800-202-6868
Brydon, A., Bhar, S., Doyle, C., Batchelor, F., Lovelock, H., Almond, H., Mitchell, L., Nedeljkovic, M., Savvas, S., & Wuthrich, V. (2022). National Survey on the Impact of COVID-19 on the Mental Health of Australian Residential Aged Care Residents and Staff. Clinical Gerontologist, 45(1), 58-70.https://doi.org/10.1080/07317115.2021.1985671
Nochaiwong, S., Ruengorn, C., Thavorn, K., Hutton, B., Awiphan, R., Phosuya, C., Ruanta, Y., Wongpakaran, N., & Wongpakaran, T. (2021). Global prevalence of mental health issues among the general population during the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 10173. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89700-8
For many people, when they hear the word ‘Psychiatrist’, it would instantly conjure up an image of a doctor prescribing medicine for someone with a mental health condition. This is true to the extent that a psychiatrist is a medical doctor who has undergone training to become a mental health specialist. While prescribing medications are indeed part of the treatment process, what really goes on in between – from the first session to the very end?
On your very first session, your psychiatrist will most likely spend 1-1.5 hours with you to gain a better understanding of what you’re coming in for. Mental health conditions can be a touchy subject for many, and it is understandable that you’d feel hesitant to open up to a complete stranger right away. However, trust that your psychiatrist has your best interests in mind, and will do his/her best to provide optimal treatment. Don’t be afraid of being judged for your symptoms, rest assured that the psychiatrist’s office is a safe and non-judgemental space. The psychiatrist will want to know as much as you’re willing to share, and being honest with your psychiatrist will be extremely helpful for an accurate diagnosis and the development of an effective treatment plan. Just as what you’d expect when you seek a General Practitioner for physical conditions, your psychiatrist would start off by asking broader questions such as, “What brings you here today,” or “How can I help you?” For some individuals, especially if it’s their first time at a psychiatrist’s, open-ended questions like these may be nerve-wracking. You may feel a little overwhelmed, not knowing how to start or where to begin. However, there are no hard and fast rules as to how the session should flow. Simply communicating your symptoms and your concerns would be a great start, and your psychiatrist will guide you through the interview.
Your psychiatrist will also run through a history-taking process, paying special attention to your medical history, family history, your current lifestyle habits and general patterns of sleep. It is important to let your psychiatrist know if you’re on certain medications, as some may have side effects that may fuel certain mental health conditions. Avoid downplaying or dismissing any information related to your physical or mental wellbeing, the clue to an accurate diagnosis may very well lie in the details. As such, going for your first session prepared with a complete list of medications, dosages, and your compliance with them can be very beneficial. Many studies have also shown that genetics play a role in mental health disorders. If you have a family member who suffers from a psychiatric issue, be sure to let your psychiatrist know for him to have a clearer idea of the situation. If need be, your psychiatrist may also ask permission to speak with other family members.
Depending on the patient’s circumstance, the psychiatrist may conduct a physical check-up if necessary, or possibly laboratory tests to exclude other possible causes for your condition. These are done to confirm that what you’re experiencing are not due to other medical conditions which may give rise to similar symptoms. Hence, if your psychiatrist asks for these procedures to be carried out, don’t feel too worried! Questionnaires to further assess your symptoms may also be given, so do make sure to answer them as truthfully as possible.
Depending on the complexities of your condition, medication options or other forms of treatment may be prescribed. If you are given medications, the psychiatrist would counsel you on how you can tell if the medications are working. Over the course of your recovery journey, take note of how subtle changes to the medications made by your psychiatrist affects you. Do they stabilise or improve your condition, or do they seem to send you on a downward spiral? How have you been feeling since you started taking them? Whatever the outcome, keep your psychiatrist in the know of how you’re coping. In the same vein, it is very important that you do not adjust your medications on your own without seeking professional advice! Patients may get impatient if they’re not seeing the desired change after a while, but constant and unregulated changes can cause undesirable fluctuations, potentially worsening the situation. We need to understand that there could be catastrophic, life-threatening consequences if we do not take them seriously.
In general, psychiatrists usually work closely with psychologists and therapists, as some mental health conditions are best treated with both neuropharmacological support and psychotherapy. Thus, your psychiatrist may also refer you for psychotherapy if deemed fit. Depending on the level of care required to address the patient’s symptoms, psychiatrists may recommend treatment programmes if more intensive care is needed.
So you are going to see a psychologist for the first time – now what should we expect? The thought of having to step into a psychologist’s room for the first time can be nerve-racking, and understandably so. Oftentimes, individuals may be apprehensive and would wonder if talking to a complete stranger is really going to help, or if opening up your innermost thoughts to a stranger was too much of a risk to take. However, rest be assured that these mental health professionals are well-versed in psychotherapy methods to help you manage your issues as best as possible, and will work closely with you at a comfortable pace. Just like in the treatment of physical illnesses by physicians, patient privacy and confidentiality are also primary obligations for psychologists. In this article, we hope to give you a clearer idea of what you can expect from your visit to a psychologist, especially if it is your first session.
First things first, it is important to understand that psychotherapy isn’t merely a one-off session. While the duration of treatment may vary from one person to another, the American Psychological Association (APA) reports that “recent research indicates that on average 15 to 20 sessions are required for 50 percent of patients to recover as indicated by self-reported symptom measures.” The type and duration of treatment also heavily depend on the nature and severity of each client’s conditions, and it would simply be unfair to make an overgeneralised statement. Regardless, it would be beneficial to go in with an open mind, and to have an honest conversation with your psychologist. It really helps to trust that the process works, while acknowledging that it takes time.
Meeting the psychologist
At the beginning, the first few sessions would aim to help one identify the most pertinent issue that needs to be dealt with. The psychologist will talk through with you gathering some information on your life history, your family’s mental health history, the problems you are dealing with, and analyse those details – no matter how insignificant they may seem at first – that could have possibly led to emotional distress or coping difficulties. For the psychologist, being able to get a good grasp of the situation and seeing the big picture is vital for formulating the treatment plan and treatment process, as it will help to determine the type of psychotherapy that is best suited for you. The psychologist is trained to listen and analyse your conditions in order to help you with your recovery. As such, it is equally important that you don’t hold yourself back from being fully honest with your psychologist. To a large extent, the patient’s participation in the therapy is an important determinant of the success of the outcome.
While we fully understand that it can be unnerving, these mental health professionals are trained to help you work through the challenges you face, and the therapy room is very much a safe, non-judgemental space. Goal-setting is one of the key aspects of psychotherapy, and it is exceptionally important to set goals from the start that you can use to track your progress. You may start by identifying personally meaningful broad motives, hopes and dreams – having a clear direction in mind will better steer future sessions towards alleviating symptoms of distress and tackling the root cause of one’s concerns. Don’t worry if you feel the need to change your goals or take a different approach halfway through the treatment process. Psychotherapy is a dynamic process after all, and increased self-discovery along the way can certainly give you a better sense of what needs to be changed.
Different approaches to psychotherapy
There are several approaches to psychotherapy that can be implemented in the following sessions. Not strictly limited to one or the other, psychologists may make use of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapies, cognitive-behavioural, interpersonal, and other types of talk therapy. They can help you focus on changing problematic behaviours, feelings, and thoughts to build on healthy habits, or teach you emotion-coping strategies to cope with your symptoms. Forms of treatment like cognitive-behavioural therapy also aim to help individuals recognise negative thought and behaviour patterns, thereby working towards a positive change. Each session is essentially a problem-solving session. By allowing yourself to talk to your psychologist about your most difficult moments, your feelings and the change you want to observe, the psychologist is then able to make use of his/her expertise to assist you. Many mental health professionals don’t limit their treatment to any one approach. Instead, they blend elements from different approaches and tailor their treatment according to each patient’s needs.
To make the most of the treatment process, “homework” may sometimes be assigned as between-session tasks to clients as part of your treatment. A variety of homework assignments exist – sometimes in the form of practising new skills, habits, and other coping mechanisms, or someone who is dealing with complicated emotions could be asked to record your negative thoughts in nightly journal entries. When you return for your next session, the psychologist would then check in on your progress, and address any issues that may have arisen while you were completing your tasks. For some clients the benefits of therapy can be achieved in a few sessions, while for other clients they might need more to improve. Empirical evidence supports the benefits of homework in promoting positive symptom change and increasing patient functioning, that is, the quality of a client’s participation in therapy through active application of what they learn will lead to improvements in their conditions.
Was the psychologist right for you?
Often during the conversation with the psychotherapist, or after the session, you may feel a sense of relief, elation, or anxiety and exhaustion. However you feel, it is important to take note of those feelings. Did the psychologist put you at ease? Did he/she listen to you carefully and demonstrate compassion? Did he/she develop a plan to guide you with your goals and show expertise and confidence in working with issues that you have? For the treatment to be effective, you need to be able to ‘click’ with the psychologist, that is you are able to build trust and a strong connection with your psychologist.
To end off, the first session with a psychologist is understandably a bit intimidating and overwhelming, but the first step in the journey to recovery is a critical step to regain your mental wellbeing.
Many of us are absorbed in an endless, self-defeating rat race. The nature of modern society has instilled in us a “winner/loser” mindset, and its systems highly prioritise external rewards and punishments as measures of our personal success and social worth. This oftentimes forces us to shift our perception of self-worth from the satisfying efforts of personal endeavour, to the critical imperative of achieving yardsticks of success defined by the rest of society. When we are constantly striving to win a race while focusing on external factors largely beyond our design or control, we’re surely putting ourselves at a disadvantageous position.
The overwhelming pressure to conform to societal expectations, or to outrun others in the race of life, can make one particularly susceptible to depression if negative emotions are not managed well. As we aim for perfection – as most people would – we need to understand that total perfection is unattainable. The more we believe that we have failed to reach a certain state of “perfection”, the greater the extent to which we experience low self-esteem, self-hatred, and depression. Depression can be extremely debilitating to one’s mental health. Apart from the diminishing enthusiasm for life and self-esteem, depressed individuals may self-isolate and pull away from their social circles, making it all the more difficult for them to get the help they need.
Perhaps one of the healthiest things we can do for ourselves is to accept who we are. Self-acceptance might just be the antidote to excessive self-resentment and discontentment. It is important that we fight against influences that force us to conform to certain standards rather than to accept ourselves. Presented below are a couple of talk therapy methods that we use to guide you towards achieving that.
What is ACT?
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a form of talk therapy suitable for the treatment of individuals displaying symptoms of depression. As its name suggests, it’s core aims are to help individuals accept whatever is beyond their control, and to commit to actions or habits that will serve to enrich their quality of life. ACT helps us to clarify what is genuinely important to us (i.e our values), and thus assists us to set more meaningful and life-enriching goals. Along the way, it also guides us to practise useful emotion-coping strategies such as mindfulness in order to equip us with skills to handle negative emotions effectively and healthily. While the number of ACT sessions may differ for each individual, the benefits acquired by clients are largely similar:
Learning to be fully present in the “here-and-now”, and to stop obsessive worrying over the past or future
Become aware of what they are avoiding (be it consciously or subconsciously), and to increase self-awareness
Learning to enjoy greater balance and emotional stability, and to be less upset by unpleasant experiences
Learning to observe thoughts such that one does not feel held captive by them, and to develop openness
To develop self-acceptance and self-compassion
Clarifying one’s personal values and taking the appropriate action towards his goals.
You may be wondering, does it really work? The good news is that ACT is considered to be an empirically validated treatment by the American Psychological Association (APA). Through program evaluation data, research has also shown that Veterans who completed ACT treatment phases displayed a significant decrease in depression in addition to improved self-awareness and a better quality of life.
What is DBT?
Apart from ACT, another alternative for the treatment of depression is Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT). While originally used for the treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder, DBT has since been adapted to treat other mental health conditions including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. A type of cognitive behavioural therapy, DBT aims to help individuals who struggle with emotional-regulation and are exhibiting maladaptive or self-destructing behaviours. It is not an uncommon sight for persons with depression to engage in substance-abuse or self-harm. As such, DBT helps to build on distress tolerance, such that people who struggle with these are able to handle negative life-circumstances better and to avoid falling back on such devastating coping methods.
DBT can be considered a holistic approach to depression treatment. Apart from tackling maladaptive behaviours, it encourages a shift in the clients’ perspective on life, for it equips them with the necessary skills to cope with intense emotions. In short, it empowers you to cope with them with a positive outlook. DBT also recognises that interpersonal effectiveness is key, and hence it strives to help these troubled individuals to reconnect and enhance their relationships with others.
ACT Versus DBT
ACT and DBT are both highly effective methods of treatment for depression. Both forms of psychotherapy allow for individuals to tackle the notion of suffering head-on, and to avoid suppressing undesirable or uncomfortable feelings. Both promote psychological flexibility, and encourage people to behave in a conscious or effective way towards their life-choosing directions. The practice of mindfulness is also a commonality between both therapy methods, and it plays a crucial role in ensuring that persons are well aware of their values, goals and emotions.
However, overlaps between the two are considerably limited too. The main differences between ACT and DBT would be that DBT leans towards a more educative approach while ACT emphasises an experiential one. Perspective wise, DBT adopts a biosocial perspective on behaviour while that of ACT is contextual. Moreover, the underlying philosophy behind each form of therapy also differs. DBT philosophy is dialectical (i.e using logical reasoning and analysis), while the philosophy behind ACT is functional contextualism. With that said, the analysis of clients’ experiences, the use of languages as well as experiential exercises will be different for each type of therapy.