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Dr Rajesh Jacobs Speaks with Expat Living on the misconceptions of psychiatric medication

Dr Rajesh Jacobs Speaks with Expat Living on the misconceptions of psychiatric medication

There are many stereotypes about mental health medication. One acute misconception is medication dependence and addiction – that it’ll be difficult to stop these medications once people with mental illnesses get well and recover.
Dr Jacob Rajesh from Promises Healthcare speaks to the editorial team from Expat Living to help debunk some of the myths and tells us more about new techniques like Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.
An Interview with ANZA magazine on how psychological testing can help your child

An Interview with ANZA magazine on how psychological testing can help your child

Raising a child is demanding – their emotions and personality trait can change frequently. As a parent, how can you tell if your child’s behaviour is part of growing up or a cause for concern?
Child psychologists at Promises, Tan Su-Lynn and SC Anbarasu speak to the editorial team at ANZA about psychological tests for children and adolescents which help parents better understand the strengths and challenges their child has in areas of cognitive, behavioural, learning and socio-emotional functioning.
Learn more about the types of tests and what goes into one at
An Interview with HoneyKids Asia on the whats and hows of ADHD in Children

An Interview with HoneyKids Asia on the whats and hows of ADHD in Children

While most of us may be familiar with the term ADHD or Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, we may be unfamiliar with the challenges and struggles a child diagnosed with ADHD goes through.
Our senior psychologists from the Child and Adolescent team, S. C. Anbarasu and Tan Su-Lynn, spoke to the editorial team at HoneyKids Asia to shed more light on ADHD, how it affects kids, what are the early symptoms, and how parents can support a child with a diagnosis.
What’s the Difference Between a Psychologist and a Therapist?

What’s the Difference Between a Psychologist and a Therapist?

Psychologists and Therapists are often misunderstood to be the same profession, but they aren’t one and the same. Both types of mental health professionals, however, do have a vast knowledge of mental processes. As a general rule, they may work closely together to conduct sessions with their clients and work to alleviate the individuals’ mental health status. In this article, we try to help you understand the difference between the two and explain how each can help with your mental health needs.   

Psychologists – not to be confused with Psychiatrists – are mental health professionals who are adept at the study of the mind, and are professionally trained in one or more subfields of psychology. In terms of their clinical orientation, psychologists can have different specialisations. To list a couple of examples, some specialisations may include the treatment of patients with affective disorders, addictions, trauma, or personality disorders. 

Psychologists are skilled at clinical interviews and comprehensive psychological testing and assessments, with common ones such as a Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), or others including a Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). Clinical psychologists, while unable to provide neuropharmacological support, are able to make a diagnosis if a patient is suspected to have a mental health condition, before moving on to the treatment process. Generally speaking, psychologists tend to approach treatment by exploring the larger theoretical bases of human thought and behaviour. Through this, they work alongside the patient to sieve through difficult life events, long term anxiety or traumatic experiences, in order to trace back to a possible cause of dysfunction. The most common type of treatment used by psychologists is psychotherapy, or talk therapy. The treatment process certainly isn’t one-size-fits-all, for all individuals and their life experiences are different and unique in their own ways. Psychologists ensure that the course of treatment is tailored to each patient’s needs and goals, and help them work through their concerns in a holistic manner. Psychologists can often work in tandem with psychiatrists,  in order to provide the optimal treatment for a patient.

In contrast, therapists tend to work from a broader perspective. As social relationships are a significant contributor to one’s mental wellbeing, it is important that they are balanced and are not debilitating towards one’s mental health status. Thus, therapy often helps an individual to gain insights into his interpersonal connections, in addition to self-actualisation. Therapists can also have varying specialisations. For instance, a marriage and family therapist can help couples or families resolve interpersonal hardships, a child therapist can help a child overcome developmental disturbance, and a Cognitive Behavioural Therapist can aid one in switching away from destructive life habits. Regardless of their specialisations, therapists are, at their core, there to provide mental health support, focusing mainly on improving an individual’s well-being and their ability to cope with day-to-day stressors. 

Therapy can be exceptionally beneficial for persons who require skill sets involving emotion and problem-solving strategies, such that they are better able to cope with difficult times in a healthy manner without having their emotions rule over them. Therapists are in some sense, a guiding light for patients. By providing guidance and support, therapists can nudge one towards clarifying their emotions and helping them make better life decisions (not making the decisions on their behalf!)

Therapists, like psychologists, are unable to prescribe medications. A therapist’s goal is to help patients make decisions and clarify their feelings in order to solve problems. Therapists provide support and guidance while helping patients make effective decisions within the overall structure of support. 

Just like how your body can react to physical illnesses, issues with mental health (especially if they are persistent) can be debilitating too. Now that you have a better understanding of the differences between psychologists and therapists, how you do choose the right clinician for your mental health issues? A great first step would be to browse our list of professionals at Promises Healthcare and make an appointment with one whose speciality best suits your needs.


References:

  1. https://dictionary.apa.org/psychologist (Accessed 06/05/2021)
  2. https://positivepsychology.com/how-to-become-a-therapist/ (Accessed 06/05/2021)
  3. https://www.humanservicesedu.org/counselor-vs-psych-vs-therapist/ (Accessed 06/05/2021)

 

Evidence-Based Mental Health Disorder Diagnosis: How It’s Done from a Clinical Perspective

Evidence-Based Mental Health Disorder Diagnosis: How It’s Done from a Clinical Perspective

For individuals that are taking the first step to seek help from mental health professionals, it is natural that they may be concerned with the possibility of a misdiagnosis, or perhaps an overdiagnosis. With the pre-existing stigmatisation of mental health disorders, clients would have needed to pluck up their courage to seek treatment in the first place. A misdiagnosis could not only hinder them from receiving the appropriate treatment for their affliction, but also allows for their distress to grow unchecked as their hope for recovery diminishes. In other words, accuracy in evidence-based mental health diagnosis is crucial, and this article aims to help you better understand how the diagnostic process works.

As the term “Evidence-Based Diagnosis” implies, psychiatrists or clinical psychologists take extra care to ensure that any diagnosis made is accurate, objective, and not subject to any form of personal bias. In some sense, this also means allowing for a safe, non-judgemental and compassionate environment. Primarily, clinicians would have to understand the client’s suffering and situation, before thinking about how that might relate to a possible mental disorder. Perhaps you may be unaware of this – clinicians do not simply jump straight into tying the client down with a specific diagnosis of a mental disorder. Before all else, clinicians have to consider if the client’s symptoms meet the definitions of a mental disorder in the first place. As per the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the definition of a mental disorder considers these five factors:

  1. A behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual
  2. Reflects an underlying psychobiological dysfunction
  3. The consequences of which are clinically significant distress (e.g., a painful symptom) or disability (i.e., impairment in one or more important areas of functioning)
  4. Must not be merely an expected response to common stressors and losses (i.e.. the loss of a loved one) or a culturally sanctioned response to a particular event (i.e. trance states in religious rituals)
  5. Primarily a result of social deviance or conflicts with society

With reference to the definition of a mental disorder, it is particularly important to note that the consequences of a mental disorder is clinically significant, and causes a weighty amount of disruption to one’s lifestyle and day-to-day activities. For example, it is completely natural for one to feel upset over certain situations, and this does not necessarily mean that you have a case of depression. However, you might need to get it checked out if you find yourself unable to cope with prolonged feelings of sadness which start to interfere with your daily activities, or are causing you to have suicidal thoughts.  

Of course, clinicians then assess the syndrome one displays. By “syndrome”, we mean a collection of signs or observable aspects of the client’s suffering (i.e outward expression or behaviour). The main point of this is to identify if the syndrome is clustered in an identifiable pattern that is noted to be severe or pervasive. During the assessment phase, clinicians also try to understand the internal experiences of the client. Besides their outward display of distress, their thoughts and feelings are also important information which counts towards the diagnosis of certain disorders. Upon identifying that the client is indeed suffering from a mental condition, clinicians then try “assigning” the client to a particular category. You can think of it as, “can the syndrome be broadly identified?” There are certain broad categories of disorders, such as anxiety disorders, or psychotic disorders. Needless to say, clinicians have to consider which category the client best fits in.

The last step of the diagnosis process concerns the further narrowing and identification of the specific disorder – branching out from the broader, generalised category and into the specific details. For example, a client could be diagnosed with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), a form of an anxiety disorder. Ideally, a specific disorder is identified during the diagnosis process for various reasons – for the sake of the clients themselves, but also for clearer communication with other mental health professionals (in the case of continuity of care), and even for legal or court matters. Under rare circumstances, some clinicians are able to identify the broad category of the mental disorder, yet are unable to specify the exact condition that the client is suffering from. In cases like these, their disorders will be labelled as “unspecified”, as per the 10th version of the International Classification of Diseases. 

As mentioned, evidence-based mental disorder diagnosis is all about diagnosing clients accurately and objectively. To enhance objectivity, some clinicians go the extra mile, stopping to consider if the diagnosis given was biased, or influenced by his or her own culture and history. “Is the syndrome maladaptive?”, “Did I take cultural variables into account?” An objective diagnosis will certainly go a long way in ensuring that the client receives the most appropriate treatment, which will in turn enhance his or her recovery journey. 

Overall, it is safe to say that it takes two hands to clap in every treatment process. Clients and clinicians should try as much as possible to work together, be it in the assessment or treatment phase. For an effective treatment, clinicians will do their best to assess the severity and pervasiveness of any syndrome using understandable language such that clients are well aware of their condition. However, clients also need to understand that transparency on their side is pivotal and that it will drastically impact the treatment process, for better or for worse, depending on their cooperativity and how much they choose to reveal. 

 


References:

Dr Robert Shwartz, Ph.D., PCC-S, Evidence-Based Mental Disorder Diagnosis: How to Increase Accountability, Efficiency and Objectivity, video recording, Mental Health Academy

<https://www.mentalhealthacademy.co.uk/dashboard/catalogue/evidence-based-mental-disorder-diagnosis-how-to-increase-accountability-efficiency-and-objectivity> (Accessed 11/09/2020)